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The colonization of Australia

Page history last edited by PBworks 16 years, 3 months ago


Australian Aboriginals
 The Eora, Kamilaroi,The Turuwal, Wiradjuri, The Wonnaura are the different tribes in Australia. Although there were many different tribes they each originated from differnt places across astralia and survied and lived differently depebding on the ecosysytem.
They all survived off of the nature very well, they ate what they could find and there ancessters learned the ways of the nature and how to survive ande then had passesd it on.
 Tools were crafted and made to strict specifications that were never written down but nonetheless were blueprinted. Marsupials were commonly hunted with spears, spear throwers, clubs and throwing sticks, nets and pitfalls. Reptiles, rodents and insects were excavated with digging sticks. Fishing tackle consisted of spears, nets and traps.
Food and hunting
each day a various number of the  camp would leave to go hunt for there families. the men would cariie around spears, spear throwers and any weapons for hunting. Almost everywhere could be found edible tubers and roots, leaves, pods, seeds, nuts, berries and fruit. Eggs were taken from emus, bush turkeys and mallee fowl, geese and mutton-birds, and, in the north, from turtles and crocodiles. Kangaroos, wallabies, possums, small marsupials and rodents were widely available, as were lizard’s snakes and frogs. Birds flew over most of the continent, including the arid interior, and often flying foxed would be plucked, still asleep, from their branches. It is understandable with such a variety that Aboriginals found it unnecessary to form and cultivate their own food. The Aboriginals continued to hunt and gather while tribes in New Guinea and Indonesia were practising farming
The aboriginals lives in small gunyas. gunyas were huts in a dome shape that were made out of bark. not all poeple live in qunyas, they live in caves and some just livce under the sky with no shelter. the natives moved there camps when the food moves. they live where the food is to survive. the camps were sometimjes known top have up to 400 people and some camps only have a number of 10 people. the families live togeather in the same area of the camps. while some people live in caves, qunyas and others in nothing at all the whole camp works as a family and helps each other out.
Aboriginal art
art was very important. it was part of there religeon. they made sand paintings in the sand, they painted there bodies, made carvings, did dot painting wich was all in dots, rock paitning and there was many more ways they performed art.  there art was and still is used to mark territorry, record histiry and tell stories about dreams. it represented the relationships between clansa and the relationships between man and women.
Body painting- body painting was the paiting done right on the body. It was sometimes paintted on for traditional dances or ceramonies.
Carvings- carvings were usally carvings of small men or mythilogical creatures.
Rock Painting- brushes, fingers and stickes were used to rock paint. some paintings were just of people and animals and others were od descriptive ex-rays of people. most of the paintings were of men and women.
When the Europeans met with the Natives



The First Fleet

-11 ships sailed from Great Britain on May 13, 1787 to establish the first European colony in New South Whales.

- Convict settlement, marking beginnings of transportation to Australia.

-the Fleet of ships was lead by Captain (later Admiral) Arthur Phillip.

- The name of the fleet was called, The First Fleet.

- The first fleet was the very first European settlement on austrlia.

- The ships names were Alexander, Prince of Wales,Scarbough,Charlotte,Friendship and Lady Penrhyn

-When the colonists had met with the natives it led to the spread of illnesses that was unknown to the Nyoongar people, this lad to many deaths and the population number went down. In many ways, the arrival of the British was not good for the Nyoongar culture and brought many deaths.





European Convicts and Explorers


Preparation for the voyage

The convict ships were fitted out with strong hatch bars between decks, bulkheads to divide convicts from crew, and the guns and ammunition. Provisions included food such as flour, peas, rice, butter, salted beef and pork, bread, soup, cheese, water and beer. Coal and wood were provided for fuel. Wagons, wheelbarrows, gunpowder, collapsible furniture for the governor, scientific instruments, paper, ropes, crockery, glass panes for the governor's windows, ready-cut wood, cooking equipment and a miscellany of weapons. Other items included tools, agricultural implements, seeds, medical supplies, bandages, surgical instruments, handcuffs, leg irons and chains. A prefabricated house for the governor was constructed and packed flat. 5,000 bricks for construction and thousands of nails were loaded.



The Voyage

When the fleet left they must have been greeted with fear and trepidation by the convicts and marines. They were embarking on the longest voyage ever attempted by such a large group. They were heading for a destination that was little explored by Europeans, and whose conditions were only to be guessed. Few would have had any confidence in seeing Britain, their families and friends, ever again. The weather became increasingly hot and humid as the fleet sailed through the tropics. Rats and parasites such as bedbugs, lice, cockroaches and fleas, tormented the convicts and because of this on 5 August the fleet reached Rio de Janeiro and stayedm for a month. The ships were cleaned and water taken on board, repairs were made, and Phillip ordered large quantities of food for the fleet.The women convicts’ clothing, which had become infested with lice, was burned, and the women were issued with new clothes made from rice sacks. The fleet left Rio on 3 September this was the last port of call, so the main task was to stock up on plants, seeds and livestock for their arrival in Australia. The convicts were provided with fresh beef and mutton, bread and vegetables to build up their strength for the journey. A freak storm struck as they began to head north around Van Diemen's Land, damaging the sails and masts of some of the ships. The first ship, the Supply reached Botany Bay only hours before the rest of the Fleet, so no work was possible. The Supply reached Botany Bay on 18 January 1788; the three fastest transports in the advance group arrived on 19 January; slower ships, including the Sirius arrived on 20 January. It was soon realised that Botany Bay did not live up to the glowing account that Captain James Cook had given it in 1770. The bay was open and unprotected, fresh water was scarce, and the soil was poor. On January 21, 2 days after he had arrived in Botany Bay, Phillip and a party which included John Hunter, departed the Bay in three small boats to explore other bays to the north. They soon found what they were looking for and the men returned on 23 January with news of a harbour to the north, with sheltered anchorages, fresh water and fertile soil. Unknown to the first European arrivals, it was to be almost two and a half years before other ships arrived with their cargo of new convicts and provisions. These were Lady Juliana, shortly followed by the storeship Justinian and the three ships of the infamous Second Fleet.



When getting there Governor Philip (1788-1792) founded a system of labour in which people, whatever their crime, were employed according to their skills - as brick makers, carpenters, nurses, servants, cattlemen, shepherds and farmers. Educated convicts were set to the relatively easy work of record-keeping for the convict administration. Women convicts were assumed to be most useful as wives and mothers, and marriage effectively freed a woman convict from her servitude. From 1810, convicts were seen as a source of labour to advance and develop the British colony. Convict labour was used to develop the public facilities of the colonies - roads, bridges, courthouses and hospitals. Convicts also worked for free settlers and small land holders. In the mid-1830s only around six per cent of the convict population were 'locked up', the majority working for free settlers and the authorities around the nation. Even so, convicts were often subject to cruelties such as leg-irons and the lash. Places like Port Arthur or Norfolk Island were well known for this. The experience of these convicts is recorded through the first Australian folk songs written by convicts. Love Tokens were produced in the 1820s and 1830s by transported convicts as a farewell to their loved ones. Made from coins such as pennies, most of the engraved inscriptions refer to loss of liberty. The convects that were transportad there were 70% English 24% Irish and 5% Scotish. Soilders were also transported there for things like mutiny, desertion and insubordination. 6% of the convets were locked up or treated like slaves and put to work building roads, bridges, courthouses and hospitals. Convicts also worked for free settlers and small land holders.  Most of the convicts were thieves who had been convicted in the great cities of England. Only those sentenced in Ireland were likely to have been convicted of rural crimes. Transportation was an integral part of the English and Irish systems of punishment. It was a way to deal with increased poverty and the severity of the sentences for larceny. Simple larceny, or robbery, could mean transportation for seven years. Compound larceny - stealing goods worth more than a shilling (about $50 in today's money) - meant death by hanging.


The 'Ticket of leave'


The ticket of leave was given to convects for good behavior and this ment the convicts could earn their own living and live independently. However, the convects were still watched just in case the tried to repeat their actions or wores their ticket could be withdrawn. This was found to work better in securing good behaviour then the threat of flogging. The ticket of leave licences were developed first to save money, but they then became a central part of the convict system which provided the model for later systems. Governor King (1800-1804) first issued tickets of leave to any convicts who seemed able to support themselves, in order to save on providing them with food from the government store. The tickets were then used as a reward for good behaviour and special service, such as informing on bushrangers. Gentlemen convicts were issued with tickets on their arrival in the colony although Governor Macquarie (1810-1821) later ordered that a convict had to serve at least three years before being eligible. South Australia, and the Northern Territory of South Australia, never accepted convicts directly from England, but still had many ex-convicts from the other States. After they had been given limited freedom, many convicts were allowed to travel as far as New Zealand to make a fresh start, even if they were not allowed to return home to England.





For the first fleet they used trees they found and made tent like huts but were not sucsessful during the heavy rain showers.



Food The European settlers ate rabbits, deer and used flour to make many things like bread, cakes and muffins.


Weapons they used firearms and swords and other wepouns to kill the animals on the island.


Diseases one of the diseases in australia were smallpox.


Relegion the relegion they had was chistanity.



Weather the weather was hot and humid.




John Warren, born 1826, he was one of the first convicts to be sent to Australia, he arrived there September 1874,. He was convictd of forging a bill of exchange and was sentenced for life. he taught at the Catholic school at York from 1860, and then at Newleyine from 1866 to 1868.He then moved to the Wicklow Hills school, prompting the closure of the Newleyine school. In 1870 he was dismissed for gross misconduct, but this did not stop him being appointed teacher at Dumbarton in 1872. John married Mary Ann Elizabeth Gould a wealthy widow who owned a hotel and a farm.




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