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Portuguese Settlements in Africa

Page history last edited by PBworks 13 years, 4 months ago

Hey everyone =] April and Toni have decided to do a topic on Portuguese settlements in Africa for this social studies project, April being the Portuguese (Francisco de Almeida), and Toni being the native in Africa (Tisha). Here is some information about our subject.

 

Zanzibar

 

Zanzibar is a city of Tanzania on the western coast of Zanzibar Island. It was founded in the 16th century as a Portuguese trading post; it was a major center of the East African ivory trade in the 19th century. The Portuguese established control over the island in 1503. In August 1505 it became part of the Portuguese Empire when Captain John Homere of de Almeida's fleet captured the island and claimed it for Portugal. It was to remain a possesion of Portugal until 1698. The population of Zanzibar today is approximately 205 000. The first permanent settlers in Zanzibar seemed to have been the ancestors of the Hdimu and Tumabtu. They belonged to small ethnic groups and lived in villages on Zanzibar. Although Zanzibar is part of Tanzania it elects it own president.

Zanzibar is located on island of the coast of arica. It is a large fishing and dugout canoe production. Traders from the Persian gulf sailed in to the harbour regularly. The traders started to settle in small numbers on Zanzibar, and they intermarried with the Africans.Religion plays an important part in the lives of the africans. Most africans have a islamic faith.

 

Portuguese Exploration in Africa

 

European exploration of Africa began in the 15th century, when Europeans explored the African coast in search of a water route to India. These expeditions were mostly conducted by the Portuguese, who had been given papal (Roman Catholic) authority to exploit all non-Christian lands of the Eastern Hemisphere. The Europeans set up coastal colonies to prosecute the slave trade, but the interior of the continent remained unexplored until the 19th century.

 

Francisco de Almeida

 

Francisco de Almeida was born in Lisbon in 1450. He gained fame in the Moorish wars. He was made the first Portuguese Viceroy of India in March 1505 by the King, Manuel I. He sailed around the Cape of Good Hope with 21 ships, and destroyed Mombasa before taking up residence in Cochin. He entered into fierce wars with Indian and South Asian kingdoms in order to build up a spice trade for Portugal; eventually executing a treaty with Malacca. He entered into war with the Arabs over trade, and defeated their combined navy off Diu in February 1509.

Francisco de Almeida, as I mentioned earlier, was associated with a man named Captain John Homere. Da Gama's visit in 1499 marks the beginning of European influence. In 1503 King Manuel I of Portugal appointed de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. With an armada of 22 ships, including 14 carracks and 6 caravels, Almeida departed from Lisbon on March 25, 1505. The armada carried a crew of 1,000 and 1,500 soldiers. The mission's primary aims were to bring the spice trade under Portuguese control, to construct forts along the east African and Indian coasts, to further Portuguese spice trade through alliances with local chieftains, and construct trading posts.

In August 1505 the Portuguese arrived at Mombasa, a coastal port further north. The city with a population of 10,000 was conquered in heavy combat against the troops of the local Arab sheik. The city was plundered and torched. The Portuguese were assisted in this attack by a Mombasa enemy, the Sultan of Melinde. The same month a caravel of Almeida's fleet captained by John Homere captured Zanzibar island and claimed it for Portugal. It was de Almeida's fleet, but Captain John Homere was the one who claimed Zanzibar for Portugal. It was to remain a possession of Portugal until 1698.

Almeida sailed for Portugal in December 1509 and reached Table Bay near the Cape of Good Hope, where the Garcia, Belem and Santa Cruz dropped anchor late February, 1510, to replenish water. After friendly trade with the Khoikhoi, some of the crew visited their nearby village where a dispute ensued. Almeida allowed his captains Pedro and Jorge Barreto to return to the village on the morning of March 1, 1510. The village’s cattle herd was raided with the loss of one man, while Almeida awaited his men some distance from the beach. As the flagship’s master Diogo d’Unhos moved to the landing boats to the watering point, the Portuguese were left without a retreat. The Khoikhoi sensed the opportunity for an attack, during which Almeida and 64 of him men perished, including 11 of his captains. Almeida’s body was recovered the same afternoon and buried on the shorefront of the current Cape Town.

 

Links

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dom_Francisco_de_Almeida = a page about Francisco de Almeida on Wikipedia

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005850/Francisco-de-Almeida = a page about Francisco de Almeida on Britannia Encyclopaedia

http://www.answers.com/Francisco%20de%20Almeida = a page about Francisco de Almeida on Answers.com

http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/africa.html = a page about European exploration in Africa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanzibar = a page about Zanzibar on Wikipedia

http://www.zanzinet.org/zanzibar/history/historia.html = This is a sote about present day Zanzibar and the history of Zanzibar.

http://www.zanzibarhistory.org/ = This is a site about Zanzibar

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