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Canadian and French Colonies

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 5 months ago

Canadian&French Colonies

 

All notes By Mary(Native) and Ashley.M(French)

 

If you want to check out the blog, go to www.colonizationcanada.learnerblogs.org

 

 

Native Canadian Notes.

 

Education

 

-In the earlier years, the native children were abducted and forced to learn things about the Europeans.

 

Food

 

-The natives were very adventurous and they used their outdoor knowledge for finding their foods.

-In the northeast region, the natives would eat farmed corn, beans and squash.

-Here, the natives grew 15 different kinds of corn.

-With the corn, they would ground it up and they would make porridge, cakes or to eat with maple syrup, money or fat. The natives also hunted, they mostly hunted deer.

-In the southeast region, the natives at corn, beans, squash. They also hunted deer.

-In the west culture they had crops and they hunted deer and bison. They had corn, beans, squash, melons and sunflowers.

-In the southwest region, they also ate corns, beans and squash. For meat, the tribe would hunt rabbits. To do this they would circle the rabbit and when the rabbit went to run away the natives would go on and kill the rabbit.

-In a region that is just north of the southwest region, they ate mostly seeds and insects. They were always on the move because their main sources of meat, rabbits, were always on the go. They also were on the move to follow pine nuts.

-Farther west, they ate seeds and acorns. They also ate roots, which gave them the nickname of “Root Diggers”. The natives in this area barely ate any fish because of their plentiful fruits and vegetables.

-To the north of this area, in the plateau region, it is known for trade. The natives in this area would use horses to hunt. They usually would eat fish and roots.

 

Shelter

 

 

-Also in the west culture, they lived in tepees.

 

War

 

-For the two hundred years that have just happened, the natives have been harrased, manipulated and embarrassed.

-In 1677, the Iroquois formed an alliance with the English through an agreement known as the Covenant Chain. The English and the Iroquois began a war with the French, who were allied with the Huron, another Iroquoian people but a historic foe of the Iroquois.

-The League engaged in a series of wars against the French and their Iroquoian-speaking Wyandotte ("Huron") allies. They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast and what is now boreal Canadian Shield region of Canada and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well. During the seventeenth century, they are also credited with having conquered and/or absorbed the Neutral Indians and Erie Tribe to the west as a way of controlling the fur trade, even though other reasons are often given for these wars.

-According to Francis Parkman, the Iroquois were at the height of their power in the seventeenth century, with a population of around twelve thousand people. League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through the "Mourning War", raids intended to seize captives to replace lost compatriots and take vengeance on non-members. This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat.

 

Other

 

-Haudenosaunee flag, representing the original five nations that were united by the Peacemaker. The tree symbol in the centre represents an Eastern White Pine, the needles of which are clustered in groups of five. The flag is based on the "Hiawatha Wampum Belt, created from purple and white wampum beads centuries ago to symbolize the union forged when the former enemies buried their weapons under the Great Tree of Peace."

-Four delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy, the "Indian kings", traveled to London, England, in 1710 to meet Queen Anne in an effort to cement an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Varlets. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.

-Ayonwentah and Deganawidah brought a message of peace to squabbling tribes. The tribes who joined the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga and Mohawks. Once they ceased most infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in seventeenth and eighteenth century north-eastern North America.

- Right at this moment, the American and the Canadian have had problems reinforcing their laws for the natives.

 

Family's life

 

-West of the plateau is the northwest region. There were a lot of wealthy families that lived there who would like to display their wealth by setting up totem poles. They would also have special ceremonies. The most famous ceremony is called a Potlatch. At these ceremonies, many unrelated families celebrated under one roof. Everyone that had attended got gifts. The potlatch often held a practical purpose. The various tribes and families were usually on the brink of going to war with one another, and a potlatch served to cool everyone down and warm relations. But then the Canadian government banned potlatches from 1884 until 1951. Since then the potlatches have made a startling rebound. At these potlatches they often had a twelve-day feast, containing food like salmon and other fish, berries, seal, vegetables. They were all cooked in fish oil.

 

 

Religion

 

-Most of the people of the natives were Christians. They believed in God. When the French came, the French tried to teach the natives Catholic.

-Links-http://pages.interlog.com/~gilgames/ontnat.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/C005446/text_version/English/nativeamerica.html

 

-And Wikipedia

 

 

 

 

French Notes.

 

Colonization

 

-The French had colonies all over North America. During the British conquest of 1760, Britain took over almost all of the French colonies. Even though there were thousands of British people coming to Canada, the St. Lawrence area remained mostly French.

-Several other provinces have large French populations.

-French were the first to colonize Canada . In 1603 Samuel de Champlain a French explorer came to Canada and in 1605 and 1608 established the first French colonies at Port Royal and Quebec City , respectively. The French colonists of New France colonized the St. Lawrence River valley, Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana.

 

 

Settlements

 

-In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, almost half of Canada's population was French. The French were the first to explore inland. They were also the first to establish permanent settlements. In 1605, they built Port Royal and in 1608, they built Quebec.

-The French enjoyed a trading relationship with the Algonquin nations and nations of the Wabanaki Confederacy. Iroquois opposed the French and were in continuous war with them.

-The actual settlement of New France, as it was then called, began in 1604 at Port Royal in what is now Nova Scotia; in 1608, Quebec was founded. France's colonization efforts were not very successful, but French explorers by the end of the 17th century had penetrated beyond the Great Lakes to the western prairies and south along the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.

 

 

Establishments

 

-English Hudson's Bay Company had been established in 1670. Because of the valuable fisheries and fur trade, a conflict developed between the French and English.

-At that time the population of Canada was almost entirely French.

-Bishop François de Laval, who had led the colonial church since 1659, established the Diocese of Québec in 1674. It was supported by mandatory tithes, which took the form of taxes levied on the farmers' produce. Religious bodies ran hospitals and schools and often owned large estates called seigneuries. New France, however, was never abundantly supplied with clergy. Though the people were overwhelmingly Catholic, rural communities might see a priest only a few times a year.

 

 

Fur Trade

 

-Fur trade forts dotted the continent, and Montreal’s merchants continued to control the lion's share of the fur trade, which grew and spread westward. The French approached the fur trade differently than the HBC. The French went into the back country to collect furs, but the HBC generally preferred to establish posts at shipping ports and let the indigenous trappers bring their furs to the posts. Although the HBC made a generous profit, its trade was often intercepted upstream by Montreal who met the trappers on their home ground and bought the best of their furs.

-The French fur trade operations were extended far to the west by military officer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Vérendrye, and his sons. They explored almost to the Rocky Mountains in the 1730s and 1740s and established a string of fur trading forts. The fur traders who followed them established routes along the Saskatchewan and Missouri rivers. The French forged alliances, based on the trade, with the indigenous peoples of the west, and this meant that French soldiers, traders, and missionaries could move with relative ease across the continent. But since the indigenous nations trapped and traded the pelts and European hatters processed them, the fur trade never provided work for more than a few hundred French colonists.

-Among French colonists of New France, Canadians extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, and while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade.

-In the 1640s New France was unable to aid its ally, the Huron confederacy, in a war with the Iroquois. After the Iroquois defeated and scattered the Huron in 1649, New France's fur trade was devastated, and Montreal and Quebec were exposed to attack. The colony survived, however, and the fur trade rebounded after the Ottawa, Ojibwa, and other Algonquian nations replaced the Huron as French allies and suppliers. New France's trader-explorers also began to venture inland from Montreal in search of new sources of furs.

-France needed to build permanent forts and settlements. But settlements were expensive, and in order to pay for them, commercial colonizers sought a monopoly on the fur trade. Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, acquired such a monopoly from the king of France, and in 1604 he established a post in Acadia. In 1608 Samuel de Champlain, an explorer hired by de Monts, founded a settlement at Quebec on the St. Lawrence River. Champlain, who became the champion of French colonization, understood that a monopoly of the inland fur trade could be better protected there, where the river narrowed, rather than at sites on the open coast of Acadia. Consequently, French colonization began to focus on the St. Lawrence valley. Eventually, Champlain convinced Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII, of the importance of North America.

-Under the company, the Canada colony continued to grow after Champlain died at Quebec in 1635. More settlements were founded, notably at Trois-Rivières and Montreal. The colony remained small in population and dependent on the fur trade. Fur traders also maintained a small French presence in Acadia, and in the 1640s a small, settled Acadian community took root around Port Royal on the Bay of Fundy.

-When the French government saw the potential value of the fur trade, the fishing industry, and other resources of northern North America, it began to take more interest in the region, which came to be known as New France. New France would eventually comprise Canada.

-France claimed and defended this vast area as its possession. For the most part, however, indigenous inhabitants continued their way of life unaffected by French laws or customs, and they dealt with the French primarily as allies and as customers for their furs.

 

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